It could potentially damage the console.
Microsoft has just released an advisory to all Xbox One users to not plug their consoles to surge protectors for risk of damaging it. Surge protectors are common in most households, and since power surges are common in some areas, a surge protector is needed to protect your expensive devices.
In the case of the Xbox One though, Microsoft said that it already has a built-in surge protector so there is no need to plug into one.
Did you know that your Xbox One is designed to be plugged directly into a wall outlet? Check out our console power guide here: https://t.co/lGymrPOQEV
— Xbox Support (@XboxSupport) November 17, 2017
Microsoft also added that the built-in surge protection is already present on all versions of the Xbox One, including the original, the S, and now the X. All of them are designed to be plugged in directly to the wall. In the event that you turn on the Xbox One while plugged into a surge protector, it might not even turn on or it might cause some problem with the power supply.
That makes the console even more awesome right?